Jean Paul Allain1,2,3, Ana Civantos1,2, Akshath R. Shetty1,2, Sandra Arias2,3, Alethia Barnwell1,2,
J.J. Pavón4, Yadir Torres5, J.A. Rodríguez-Ortiz5, C. Dominguez5, Juan Fernando Ramírez6, Viviana M. Posada6, Patricia Fernandez-Morales7
1Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois, 61801, USA
2Micro and Nanotechnology Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA
3Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA
4Universidad de Antioquia, Medellin, Colombia
5Departament of Ingeniería y Ciencia de los Materiales y el Transporte, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla, Spain
6Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Medellin, Colombia
7Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, Medellin, Colombia
Controlling the architecture in advanced materials to tailor properties beyond structure and composition has provided a new paradigm in modern materials design . Tuning properties at localized regions of a cellular material to meet specific functional requirements introduces challenges to modern synthesis methods. Beyond design of bulk properties in cellular materials lies the frontier of intelligent design that enables functional surface and interface properties in complex hierarchical structures. In a number of instances desired surface properties can be as important as modulating the cellular architecture. For example, an important aspect of tissue engineering in biomedical applications is to create a favorable extracellular microenvironment. This is mainly achieved by the extracellular matrix (ECM) which can guide cell differentiation and tissue regeneration. The ECM consists of a number of cues in a complex protein-cellular dynamic synergism guided, in part, by surface topography, chemistry and matrix stiffness . Recent studies [3,4] have demonstrated that depending on the type of surface structuring and patterning, cell behavior (i.e. differentiation, proliferation, motility, etc…) can be controlled. Furthermore, surface topography and more importantly surface stiffness driven by mesoscale architecture can introduce new functions including anti-bacterial properties.
In this study, we have employed directed irradiation synthesis (DIS) and directed plasma nanosynthesis (DPNS) to induce self-organized surface/interface structures on three novel complex multi-scale heterogeneous biomaterials: 1) magnesium foam metal, 2) nanopatterned porous Ti cellular and porous materials, and 3) natural cellulose hydrogels. Detailed characterization, establishing processing conditions and correlating them to surface and biomaterial properties have been successfully performed on these novel materials. An overview of the promise of these hierarchical systems for applications beyond biomedical materials will also be discussed including irradiation-driven synthesis on architected cellular material surfaces.
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